Herpes virus infection is one of the most widespread diseases in the world. There is almost no person who has not met this virus. The so great spread of this infection is because the herpes virus is very resistant to the external environment being inactivated at 580C and resisting to -700C.

The herpes simplex hominids virus represents the etiology of this infection: type 1 (buccal or labial) that causes oral, perinasal lesions, generally occurs in the upper body and type 2 (genital) – manifesting genital, peri- encountered in the lower half of the body.

Transmission is done by secretions (kissing, sexual contact or during delivery) to a non-immune organism against this infection. The herpes simplex virus type 1 is transmitted by direct contact, especially via infected saliva, and in the case of herpes simplex type 2 the transmission is by sexual contact. Subsequently, the virus persists in the nerve ganglia, where it can be reactivated whenever the immune system decreases. You can find out if you have it by doing the Herpes Home Test.

First herpes virus infection

Usually, the first contact with the herpes virus occurs in the early childhood (1-5 years), and often the primary disease is asymptomatic. The small baby has herpetic gingivostomatitis in which the lesions are localized to the mouth of the mouth and are characterized by erythema (redness), edema, blisters that open quickly and leave painful erosions that are nourishing the diet. Frequently this affection associated with fever, nausea, vomiting, and accompanies an altered general condition. The disease disappears spontaneously in about three weeks.

Differential diagnosis of herpes gingivostomatitis is caused by streptococcal infections, herpangina (Coxsackie virus), diphtheria, oral candidiasis or mouth ulcers.

Labial Type 1 Herpes (buccal)

The next contact with the herpes virus is in the form of a lighter infection and lasts less than the primary infection. The trigger factors involved in the occurrence of labial herpes are sun exposure, minor trauma, menstruation, other diseases, nervous and teething surgeries, emotional stress.

Labial herpes usually occurs in the mouth (nose) or nose area.

Clinically, it is manifested by:

Pruritus and burning – 1-2 hours before small vesicles, bulging, grouped in a bouquet, on an erythematous basis – pustules – yellowish crusts. Resolution – 7-10 days without scars.

There may be only one bouquet or a few bouquets, or there are profound forms with an extended rash with multiple and extensive bouquets.

In the case of immunocompromised individuals – simple herpes is severe, persistent, recurrent and can evolve into chronic ulceration without healing tendency. Look at this.

Genital herpes type 2

It appears in both women and men as a sexually transmitted disease. There is a small group of vesicles that open and leave ulcerations, accompanied by lymph nodes enlarged and painful (regional lymphadenopathy). Systemic manifestations are fever, headache, neck stiffness, photophobia. Women experience herpes vulvovaginitis characterized by vaginal pain and dysuria (urticaria in urination). If virus inoculation occurs in the Y-rectal area, anal and perianal lesions arise in severe proctitis (inflammation of the rectum).

The resolution of the injuries and symptoms is done in about 2-3 weeks, except in the case of immunocompromised persons (HIV / AIDS), which can turn into a chronic ulcer. Differential diagnosis of the genital herpes lesions is done with syphilis, erosive balancing, and the soft groove. It is important to be sure the disease is herpes and not something else.

Newborn herpes

It is an infection produced by herpes simplex virus type 2, often transmitted from the mother during delivery. This disorder may have several clinical aspects: septicemic (multiple cutaneous-mucosal, neurological, visceral and severe), cutaneous-mucous form (neuroleptic: herpes meningoencephalitis) and disseminated form.

Find out more here: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/neonatal-herpes/

Laboratory investigations in herpes infections include:

  • histological examination of the skin – detects the characteristic changes of herpes viral infection
  • cytodiagnostic Tzanck – determines the presence of giant multinuclear cells
  • microscopic examination of the serotype smear – highlights the acidophilic intranuclear inclusions of type A Cowdry
  • electronic microscopy
  • virus isolation on tissue culture (fibroblasts or epithelial cells)
  • detection of viral antigens – monoclonal antibodies
  • viral DNA detection – in situ hybridization and PCR
  • serum specific antibodies (IgG, IgM) – ELISA, neutralization, haemagglutination, complement fixation, immune.